Friday, May 15, 2020

Law of International Trade - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 11 Words: 3371 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Analytical essay Level High school Did you like this example? The above problem question requires examination of several legal issues ranging from formation of contracts to questions of jurisdiction and international contract terms. The facts can be simplified as follows: Dear John Plc sells goods, in this case filters, to Vera Rose Pty Ltd. Having purchased the filters Vera Rose, a company which specialises in reselling mining equipment, enters into a contract to sell them to Venture Devils Inc. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Law of International Trade" essay for you Create order One of the first issues which strike the reader is the fact that goods are advertised for sale FOB Rotterdam while the contracting parties enter into a CIF contract. Both FOB and CIF can be generally described as non-mandatory standard contract terms which are also known as Incoterms.[1] In order to ensure consistent application Incoterms are published by the International Chamber of Commerce, the latest version of Incoterms entered into force on 1 January 2000 and it is now available in 31 languages. Taking into account the fact that rights and obligations of sellers and buyers are determined by the contract in which they enter the difference between CIF and FOB is a crucial one. FOB stands for free on board,[2] as established in Stock v Inglis[3] the sellers duty is to deliver goods on board the ship while the buyer is required to nominate the vessel and make his nomination known to the seller. In addition to the above an FOB buyer has a duty to cover the cost of freight and ins urance. Obligations arising under FOB contracts can be juxtaposed with duties undertaken by the parties trading under the CIF term. CIF stands for cost, insurance and freight, in this type of contract the seller must arrange carriage and insurance and supply goods which correspond with the contract description.[4] Once these requirements are satisfied the seller must then forward to the buyer the following documents: a bill of lading, an insurance policy and a commercial invoice. On some occasions additional documents, such as for example a certificate of quality or a certificate of origin, may also be required. The buyer is obliged to accept the documents presented to him by the seller and receive the goods at their destination, in addition to this he is also responsible for custom duties and any import licenses which may be needed. As far as the contract between Dear John (the seller) and Vera Rose (the buyer) is concerned it is clear that Vera Rose prefers to trade on CIF term s. If the filters were sold FOB Rotterdam, as advertised by Dear John, the responsibilities of the seller (Dear John) would be less onerous than under the CIF contract, for instance Dear John would be obliged to merely load the goods on to the vessel rather than deliver them to a port in another country. On the facts as presented it is difficult to determine whether the contract concluded between Vera Rose and Venture Devils was a CIF contract, nonetheless the judgement in Smyth Co. Ltd v Bailey Son Co. Ltd may be of some assistance. In the course of his judgement Lord Wright described the CIF term as a type of contract which is more widely and more frequently in use than any other contract used for the purposes of sea-borne commerce. Thus, due to lack of evidence to the contrary it will be presumed that Vera Rose and Venture Devils traded on the basis of the CIF term. Finally, it is important to remember that choice of contract not only affects legal obligations of the sell er and buyer but also it has a significant impacts on the passing of property, risk and cost; therefore in FOB contracts property and risk pass at the time when goods cross the ships rail while in CIF contracts documents are tendered in return for the payment of the price at which point property passes to the buyer.[5] The contract between Dear John Plc and Vera Rose Pty Ltd The law governing legal agreements is of paramount importance to all international private law contracts. In England provisions pertaining to the choice of law and choice of jurisdiction clauses can be found in the Contracts (Applicable Law) Act 1990. The Act gives effect to the Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations otherwise known as the Rome Convention. The scope of the Rome Convention is determined by Article 1(1), in accordance with this provision the Convention applies to contractual relationships which involve a choice between laws of different countries. The contracting parties are free to choose the law applicable to their contract and in accordance with Article 3(1) their choice will be enforeced whenever possible. We are not told whether the contract concluded between Dear John and Vera Rose contained the choice of jurisdiction and/or choice of law clause. In the absence of such provisions courts try to infer the intention of the parties from the circumstances relevant to the case: Article 4. Article 4(1) provides that a contract should be governed by the law of the country with which it appears to be most closely connected. The closest connection is determined by looking at the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“characteristic performanceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  of the contract, in Hogg Insurance Brokers Ltd v Guardian Insurance Co Inc[6] characteristic performance was defined as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“performance for which payment is due.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Article 4(2) sets out the factors which are relevant to determining characteristic performance, however it should be stressed that the provisions of paragraph 2 do not apply to contracts of carriage of goods. The relevant provisions can be found in paragraph 4 of Article 4 which provides: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“where the country in which the carrier has his principal place of business is also the country where the goods were loaded or discharged, or the principal place of business of the consignor at the time the contract is concluded, it is presumed that the contract is most closely connected with that country.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  Taking into account the fact that the identity of the carrier is unknown and there is no information concerning the choice of law clauses the legal problems arising in this question will be analysed in the light of English law. The reader is told that Ashley is concerned about the price increase which resulted from the changes in interests rates. It is submitted that in this particular case any advice given to Ashley will depend on whether Dear Johns standard terms and conditions have bee n successfully incorporated into the contract. In the vast majority of cases the buyer is not aware of standard terms at the time of making an offer. Moreover, it should be stressed that in order to be effective acceptance must be unconditional and unqualified[7] and therefore acceptance which introduces new terms is not an acceptance but a counteroffer. In Schmitthoffà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Export Trade the authors expressed a view that the same principles should be applicable to the incorporation of the sellers general conditions, however due to practical considerations this is not always the case. Furthermore, the courts will be less likely to adhere to the strict legal principles if there is evidence that the parties have already acted on their agreement.[8] Ashleys case is complicated by the fact that he has not seen the footer. At present there is no reported case law concerning incorporation of standard terms and conditions in electronic communication, however the decision in Poseidon Freight Forwarding Co Ltd v Davies Turner Southern Ltd[9] gives some indication as to the views which might be taken by the courts in the future. In Poseidon Freight Forwarding the parties communicated with each other using fax machines, standard terms were printed on the back of documents and the claimant did not notice them. The court held that the terms could not be relied on due to lack of a reasonable notice. Another issue which may prove to be decisive is the fact that Ashley emailed a confirmation. The principles established by the common law are clear: as long as an agreement is signed it is legally binding irrespective of whether it has been read or understood.[10] It is possible that the confirmation email send by Ashley could constitute a à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“signature.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  In some cases it may be possible to incorporate terms and conditions into a contract without the need for a signature, however there is an important condition which must be satisfied: the more unusual a clause is, the greater the notice which must be given of it.[11] The clause allowing for interest rate adjustments is reasonable and the price increase was not excessive considering the interest rate fluctuations. However, some doubts remain as to whether Ashley was given sufficient notice of the terms, on the other hand it can be argued that he was careless not to scroll all the way down his email message; furthermore, the terms would be more likely to be binding if they were well established as a customary trade practice.[12] On the basis of the above evaluation it appears that standard terms and conditions have been incorporated into the contract although more information would be needed in order to provide reliable legal advice. Ashley is also concerned about late delivery. If the filters were delivered late Vera Rose would be entitled to damages, according to the decision in Hadley v Baxendale[13] damages are calculated by estimating the difference in the value of goods at the time when delivery was due and the time when the goods were actually delivered.[14] Although it would not be possible for Vera Rose to claim compensation for the closure of Venture Devils mines Vera Rose could claim for loss of a sub-sale if as a result of late delivery Venture Devils purchased the filters elsewhere. However, in order to be entitled to damages Vera Rose would have to prove that the loss was sustained in the usual course of events, in other words Dear John would have to be aware that Vera Rose is a dealer or that the company intended to resell the filters.[15] Finally, accurate legal advice cannot be given without careful examination of the contract. Conditions and warranties are particularly important, the contract may contain liquidated damages clauses, a clause which states that delivery time is a warranty (unlikely!) or, on the contrary, a clause which provides that time is of the essence. The contract between Vera Rose Pty Ltd and Ve nture Devils Inc The above discussion of the choice of law clauses applies in equal measure to the contract concluded between Vera Rose and Venture Devils. The difference between this and the previous case scenario is that communication between the parties was not confined to two different countries which may in turn may have a significant impact on the law applicable to the contract. According to the judgement in Brinkibon Ltd v Stahag Stahl und Stahlwarehandels GmbH[16] a contract is formed when acceptance is communicated by the offeree to the offeror. If it is necessary to determine where a contract is formed this should be at the place where acceptance is communicated to the offeror. The ratio of this case applies to the so-called instantaneous communication methods, in this case faxes. The question states that the contract was concluded by an email send from Jakarta to the Venture Devils branch in San Francisco and this implies that the contract should be governed by foreign law. However, legal problems encountered in this question will be approached as if that the Venture Devils Contract contained a clause opting for the application of English law. Vera Rose, the seller, suffered a loss of profit due to rejection of the goods by Venture Devils, the buyer. The company is seeking advice as to whether it has a claim and, if so, is it against the carrier or Dear John Plc. In England and Wales the sale and supply of goods is governed by the following legislation: the Sale of Goods Act 1979 (the Act amended the Sale of Goods Act 1893), the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982 and the Sale and Supply of Goods Act 1994. According to section 14 Sale of Goods Act 1979 the buyer has a right to reject to the goods if they are not of satisfactory quality. Moreover, in Mash Murrell Ltd v Emanuel Ltd[17] Diplock J. stressed that in sale contracts involving international carriage, such as for example CIF or FOB, there is an implied warranty that goods wil l arrive at their destination in a satisfactory condition; the seller is also impliedly guaranteeing that the goods will be capable of withstanding the demands of transportation. Venture Devils claimed the filters were à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“unusableà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and therefore they promptly rejected them. The filters were inspected within 24 hours which means they have been rejected within a reasonable time and the seller was immediately informed. A CIF buyer has a right to reject the goods even if he receives the documents prior to the arrival of the goods; in fact the right to reject the goods cannot be exercised prior to the arrival of the goods or before the buyer has a chance to examine them.[18] Unfortunately for Vera Rose a CIF seller cannot re-send the goods if they are found not to conform with the contract description.[19] In other types of contract, e.g. FOB, the second tender is allowed as long as the goods arrive within the time agreed in the contract. In any case the fil ters arrived on time and most likely Vera Rosa would not have had time for a second tender even if such a right existed. Consequently, assuming that Venture Devils had reasonable ground to reject the filters Vera Rose will not have a good claim. Potential claim against Hucklebuck Plc Hucklebuck Plc is an English company and therefore it is likely that its principal place of business is located in England. This assumption, combined with the knowledge that cargo was discharged in Welshpool, strongly indicates towards the closed connection with England. Consequently, the contract concluded between Vera Rosa and Hucklebuck Plc will be analysed in the light of English law: Article 4(4) the Rome Convention. The next issue which must be determined is the legal identity of the carrier, in the article Who is Carrier? Shipowner or Charterer Christopher Giaschi said: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“In all cargo cases one of the first things the person handling the claim must do is decide who is poten tially liable as a carrier of the goods.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [20] The confusion should be attributed to the fact that many modern vessels are chartered rather than owned by the carrier and in addition to this there are different types of charterparties, the main ones are: voyage charter, time charter and bareboat charter also known as charter by demise. A detailed discussion of problems arising in charterparties is beyond the scope of this paper, however it should be stressed at this point that the distinction between the legal and actual carrier would have a substantial impact on the advice given to Vera Rose. Similarly, if Hucklbuck was a freight forwarder acting as a carrier it would also affect Vera Roseà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s claim. The facts presented in the question are insufficient to determine how or by whom the damage was caused. The filters were delivered directly to the warehouse which means they may have been transported using multimodal containerised transport methods. Mod ern transport methods make it very difficult to determine the exact point of damage, e.g. in this particular case damage might have occurred while the goods were in charge of the road haulier. It should be stressed that the right to sue arising under the bill of lading used to be determined by the indorsements contained in the bill and closely linked with the passage of property.[21] Following the implementation of the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1992 (which repealed the Bills of Lading Act 1855) the property no longer has to pass before the holder of the bill of lading can claim a right to sue. The most important provisions from Vera Roseà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s point of view are those contained in section 2(2)(b), the section allows the seller to sue the carrier once the bill of lading is returned to him as a result of rejection of the goods by the buyer. Thus, irrespective of the fact that on arrival of the goods at their destination the bill of lading ceases to play a function of a transferable document of title the seller can sue the carrier as a lawful holder of the bills of lading once the documents are returned to him. Consequently, Vera Rose could sue the carrier provided there is a reason to suspect he did cause the damage. Potential claim against Dear John Plc Vera Rose should have inspected the consigned at the first opportunity, it is not certain whether they have or have not performed this task. The question states that Vera Rose accepted the filters on the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“without prejudiceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  basis, which Vera Roseà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s staff may have interpreted as à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“without inspectionà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  basis. Just like Venture Devils Vera Rose had a right to reject the goods but this right may have been lost when the filters were forwarded to Venture Devils. Vera Rose attempted to resell the goods and by doing so implied that it had no intention of exercising its rights, consequently it may now be estopped from rejecti ng the goods particularly if rejection would cause injustice to other parties.[22] Moreover, in Bigge v Parkinson[23] the court held: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Where a person undertakes to supply provisions, and they are supplied in cases hermetically sealed, but turn out to be putrid, it is no answer to say that he has been deceived by the person from whom he got them.à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  This leads to a conclusion that Vera Rosa may be unable to show a good claim in an action against Dear John. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Chuah, J.C.T, Law of International Trade, Lodnon: Sweet Maxwell, 2001. Dà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Arcy, Leo, ed, Schmitthoffà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Export Trade: The Law and Practice of International Trade, London: Sweet Maxwell, 2000. Wilson, John, Carriage of Goods by Sea, Pearson Longman, 2001. Legal articles Brown, I, Acceptance in the Sale of Goods, [1988] J.B.L. 56. Macdonald, E, The Duty to Give Notice of Unusual Contract Terms, [1988] J.B.L. 375. Cases Bigge v Parkinson (1862) 7 H N 955. Brinkibon Ltd v Stahag Stahl und Stahlwarehandels GmbH [1983] 2 A.C. 34. Chellaram Co. v China Ocean Shipping Co [1991] 1 Lloyds Rep. 493. Chevron International Oil Co Ltd v Ex-Cell-O Corporation (England) Ltd [1979] 1 W.L.R. 401. Hadley v Baxendale [1854] 156 E.R. 145. Hogg Insurance Brokers Ltd v Guardian Insurance Co Inc [1997] 1 Lloydà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Rep. 412. J Spurling Ltd v Bradshaw [1956] 1 W.L.R. 461. LEstrange v Graucob Ltd [1934] 2 K.B. 394. Mash Murrell Ltd v Emanuel Ltd [1961] 1 All E.R. 485. Motor Oil Hellas (Corinth) Refineries SA v Shipping Corporation of India; The Kanchenjunga [1990] 1 Lloydà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Rep. 391. Panchaud Freres SA v Etablissements General Grain Co [1970] 1 Lloydà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Rep. 53. Poseidon Freight Forwarding Co Ltd v Davies Turner Southern Ltd [1996] 2 Lloyds Rep. 388. Smyth Co. Ltd v Bailey Son Co. Ltd [1940] 3 All E.R. 60. Stock v Inglis (1884) 12 Q.B.D. 573. Statutes and Conventions 1893Act amended the Sale of Goods Act 1979Sale of Goods Act 1980Rome Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations 1982Supply of Goods and Services Act 1990Contracts (Applicable Law) Act 1994Sale and Supply of Goods Act Internet sources https://www.iccwbo.org/incoterms/id3042/index.html https://www.admiraltylaw.com/papers/Carrier.htm 1 [1] https://www.iccwbo.org/incoterms/id3042/index.html [2] Chuah, J.C.T, Law of International Trade, Lodnon: Sweet Maxwell) 95; Dà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Arcy, Leo, ed, Schmitthoffà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Export Trade: The Law and Practice of International Trade, London: Sweet Maxwell) 15. [3] (1884) 12 Q.B.D. 573. [4] Smyth Co. Ltd v Bailey Son Co. Ltd [1940] 3 All E.R. 60. [5] Chuah 108 140. [6] [1997] 1 Lloydà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Rep. 412. [7] Dà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Arcy 54. [8] Dà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Arcy 59. [9] [1996] 2 Lloyds Rep. 388. [10] Dà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Arcy 63. LEstrange v Graucob Ltd [1934] 2 K.B. 394, Chellaram Co. v China Ocean Shipping Co [1991] 1 Lloyds Rep. 493. [11] J Spurling Ltd v Bradshaw [1956] 1 W.L.R. 461. [12] Chevron International Oil Co Ltd v Ex-Cell-O Corporation (England) Ltd [1979] 1 W.L.R. 401. [13] [1854] 156 E.R. 145. [14] Chuah 144 145. [15] Chuah 144 145. [16] [1983] 2 A.C. 34. [17] [1961] 1 All E.R. 485. [18] Dà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Arcy 94 97. [19] Dà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢Arcy 94. [20] https://www.admiraltylaw.com/papers/Carrier.htm [21] See s 1 of the Bills of Lading Act 1855. [22] Panchaud Freres SA v Etablissements General Grain Co [1970] 1 Lloydà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Rep. 53, Motor Oil Hellas (Corinth) Refineries SA v Shipping Corporation of India; The Kanchenjunga [1990] 1 Lloydà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s Rep. 391. [23] (1862) 7 H N 955.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

On The Beach By Nevil Shute - 1373 Words

In Nevil Shute’s novel On the Beach, the world is quickly and quietly ending. The novel follows the last months of the lives of the last people on Earth as a cloud of radiation moves closer to their homes in Melbourne. The characters each cope with their inevitable demise in a different way: Moira Davidson resorts to alcoholism, Dwight Towers is in denial, John Osbourne indulges in material goods, and Peter Holmes tries to make the most of the time he has left with his family. Despite their dissimilar coping strategies and the horror of the situation, however, not a single character does a thing to save themselves or their families. No one theorizes a way to beat the radiation, no one devises a last-minute escape plan, and no one tries to keep humanity from going extinct. In his article, Tom Feller asserts that whether it is truly a realistic portrayal of humanity’s reaction to the apocalypse isn’t the point; instead, Shute’s portrayal of the end times as calm and docile is what gives the novel such forcefulness and emotion. Feller’s claim that the novel’s potency comes from Shute’s detached voice and unimaginative characters is proven by the characters’ reluctance to react to their fates, the sparse description, and the reserved tone of the book overall. First of all, Shute refrains from inserting his own political opinion or ideas on the demise of humanity, which allows more room for the readers to come to their own conclusions instead of having the author’s ideasShow MoreRelatedThe Road, By Cormac Mccarthy, And On The Beach1816 Words   |  8 Pagesconsidered to have a strong sense of morality and can feel what pains some must endure. Though the way being brought up does not define a person, it defines their ability to critically think. In both â€Å"The Road† by Cormac McCarthy, and â€Å"On the Beach† by Nevil Shute, characters learn to discover themselves and harness the energy of the human mind. Though not all characters in both novels find peace, most do with time. In the novel â€Å"The Road† by Cormac McCarthy, a boy and his father are set on headingRead MoreThe Bombing Of Hiroshima And Nagasaki1902 Words   |  8 PagesMarvel’s The Incredible Hulk, published in 1962, the protagonist gains his powers through exposure to radiation (Ahmed). Literature during this time, however, was not always so light-hearted. Many authors such as Nevil Shute heavily criticized use of the atomic bomb. Shute’s novel, On the Beach, depicts a post-apocalyptic world in which countries of the Northern Hemisphere engaged in all-out nuclear warfare. The novel takes place in Australia as citizens are forced to cope with the end of all life as

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Elizabeth Cady Stanton And Susan B. Anthony free essay sample

Essay, Research Paper Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony Susan B. Anthony is the most good known name in adult females # 8217 ; s rights from the 1800s. Most people who are non familiar with the history of this clip are cognizant of Susan # 8217 ; s repute and about everyone of my coevals has seen and held a Susan B. Anthony silver dollar. For these grounds I was greatly surprised to larn that Elizabeth Cady Stanton was the original adult females # 8217 ; s rights motion spokeswoman and Susan B. Anthony her prot? g? . Elizabeth Cady Stanton married an emancipationist and gave birth to seven kids. Shortly after she married, Elizabeth and her hubby attended a national anti-slavery conference in Europe. Elizabeth was outraged after her reaching to larn that she and the other adult females were non allowed to sit with the work forces and she vowed to make something about it. Several old ages subsequently she did. We will write a custom essay sample on Elizabeth Cady Stanton And Susan B. Anthony or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Her work in the first Women # 8217 ; s Rights Convention in Seneca Falls was merely the beginning. Susan B. Anthony was so a strong, driven, and disciplined adult female who had a great desire and passion to get rid of bondage. Upon run intoing Elizabeth Cady Stanton she became immersed in the adult females # 8217 ; s rights motion, giving her life to obtaining equal rights for all. Many work forces pursued Susan but she neer married, she did non desire to be # 8220 ; owned # 8221 ; by a adult male. Alternatively she chose to give her full life to this cause. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony were introduced several old ages after the Seneca Falls convention. They instantly became friends and sisters in the cause. El izabeth would compose the addresss and Susan would present them. Elizabeth’s kids referred to Susan as Aunt and she frequently took attention of the house and kids for yearss while Elizabeth wrote. This partnership was alone and good because the two adult females had really different and strong features that complimented the other such as Elizabeth’s authorship and Susan’s talking ability. Although these adult females did non populate to project their ballots in an election, their difficult work did pay off by obtaining adult females the right to have belongings and battle for detention of their kids in a tribunal of jurisprudence. In this twenty-four hours adult females can non conceive of being thrown out of their places because their hubby had died or being forced to go forth their kids in order to get away an opprobrious relationship. However, these fortunes were a portion of the mundane life before Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony changed it. Elizabeth and Susan fought long and difficult to get rid of bondage during the American Civil War, seting aside their cause for a clip. Without their attempts, the abolishment amendment would surely non hold been obtained every bit early as it was. After the war they expected the work forces to contend for the adult females # 8217 ; s rights cause and were really defeated when they did non. They were told clip and clip once more by respected work forces such as Fredrick Douglas that the black ballot was more of import at this clip and they needed to wait their bend. The adult females were disillusioned and could easy hold given up # 8211 ; most would hold. However, this betrayal merely strengthened their resoluteness and will to contend for the ballot.

Sunday, April 12, 2020

Long Days Journey Into the Night free essay sample

Act I, Part One The drama begins in August, 1912, at the summer place of the Tyrone household. The scene for all four Acts of the Apostless is the household s life room, which is next to the kitchen and dining room. There is besides a stairway merely away phase, which leads to the high-level sleeping rooms. It is 8:30 am, and the household has merely finished breakfast in the dining room. While Jamie and Edmund, Tyrone enter and embracing, and Mary remarks on being pleased with her recent weight addition even though she is eating less nutrient. Tyrone and Mary make conversation, which leads to a brief statement about Tyrone s inclination to pass money on existent estate puting. They are interrupted by the sound of Edmund, who is holding a coughing tantrum in the following room. Although Mary comments that he simply has a bad cold, Tyrone s organic structure linguistic communication indicates that he may cognize more about Edmund s illness than Mary. We will write a custom essay sample on Long Days Journey Into the Night or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Nevertheless, Tyrone tells Mary that she must take attention of herself and focal point on acquiring better instead than acquiring disquieted about Edmund. Mary instantly becomes defensive, stating, There s nil to be upset about. What makes you think I m disquieted? Tyrone drops the topic and Tells Mary that he is glad to hold her beloved old ego back once more. Edmund and Jamie are heard express joying in the following room, and Tyrone instantly grows bitter, presuming they are doing gags about him. Edmund and Jamie enter, and we see that, even though he is merely 23 old ages old, Edmund is obviously in bad wellness and nervous. Upon come ining, Jamie begins to gaze at his female parent, believing that she is looking much better. The conversation turns vindictive, nevertheless, when the boies begin to do merriment of Tyrone s loud snore, a topic about which he is sensitive, driving him to anger. Edmund tells him to quiet down, taking to an statement between the two. Tyrone so turns on Jamie, assailing him for his deficiency of aspiration and indolence. To quiet things down, Edmund tells a amusing narrative about a renter named Shaughnessy on the Tyrone household land in Ireland, where the household s beginnings lie. Tyrone is non amused by the anecdote, nevertheless, because he could be the topic of a case related to ownership of the land . He attacks Edmund once more, naming his remarks socialist. Edmund gets disturbances and issues in a tantrum of coughing. Jamie points out that Edmund is truly ill, a remark which Tyrone responds to with a shut up expression, as though seeking to forestall Mary from happening out something. Mary tells them that, despite what any physician may state, she believes that Edmund has nil more than a bad cold. Mary has a deep misgiving for physicians. Tyrone and Jamie begin to gaze at her once more, doing her self-aware. Mary reflects on her faded beauty, acknowledging that she is in the phases of diminution. As Mary issues, Tyrone chastises Jamie for proposing that Edmund truly may be ill in forepart of Mary, who is non supposed to worry during her recovery from her dependence to morphine. Jamie and Tyrone both suspect that Edmund has ingestion ( better known today as TB ) , and Jamie thinks it unwise to let Mary to maintain gulling herself. Jamie and Tyrone argue over Edmund s physician, Doc Hardy, who charges really small for his services. Jamie accuses Tyrone of acquiring the cheapest physician, without respect to quality, merely because he is a penny-pincher. Tyrone retorts that Jamie ever thinks the worst of everyone, and that Jamie does non understand the value of a dollar because he has ever been able to take comfy life for granted. Tyrone, by contrast, had to work his ain manner up from the streets. Jamie lone squanders tonss of money on prostitutes and spirits in town. Jamie argues back that Tyrone squanders money on existent estate guess, although Tyrone points out that most of his retentions are mortgaged. Tyrone accuses Jamie of indolence and knock his failure to win at anything. Jamie was expelled from several colleges in his younger old ages, and he neer shows any gratitude towards his male parent ; Tyrone thinks that he is a bad influence on Edmund. Jamie counters that he has ever tried to learn Edmund to take a life different from that which Jamie leads. Act I, Part Two Tyrone and Jamie continue their treatment about Edmund, who works for a local newspaper. Tyrone and Jamie have heard that some editors dislike Edmund, but they both acknowledge that he has a strong originative urge that drives much of his programs. Tyrone and Jamie agree besides that they are glad to hold Mary back. They resolve to assist her in any manner possible, and they decide to maintain the truth about Edmund s illness from her, although they realize that they will non be able to make so if Edmund has to be committed to a sanatarium, a topographic point where TB patients are treated. Tyrone and Jamie discuss Mary s wellness, and Tyrone seems to be gulling himself into believing that Mary is healthier than she truly is. Jamie references that he heard her walking around the spare bedroom the dark before, which may be a mark that she is taking morphia once more. Tyrone says that it was merely his snore that induced her to go forth ; he accuses Jamie one time once more of ever seeking to happen the worst in any given state of affairs. Between the lines, we begin to larn that Mary foremost became addicted to morphine 23 old ages before, merely after giving birth to Edmund. The birth was peculiarly painful for her, and Tyrone hired a really inexpensive physician to assist ease her hurting. The economical but unqualified physician prescribed morphia to Mary, acknowledging that it would work out her immediate hurting but disregarding possible future side effects, such as dependence. Therefore we see that Tyrone s stinginess ( or prudence, as he would name it ) , has come up in the yesteryear, and it will be referred to many more times during the class of the drama. Mary enters merely as Tyrone and Jamie are about to get down a new statement. Not wishing to upset her, they instantly cease and make up ones mind to travel outside to pare the hedges. Mary asks what they were reasoning approximately, and Jamie tells her that they were discoursing Edmund s physician, Doc Hardy. Mary says she knows that they are lying to her. The two stare at her once more briefly before go outing, with Jamie stating her non to worry. Edmund so enters in the thick of a coughing tantrum and Tells Mary that he feels ill. Mary Begins to niggle over him, although Edmund tells her to worry about herself and non him. Mary tells Edmund that she hates the house in which they live because, I ve neer felt it was my place. She puts up with it merely because she normally goes along with whatever Tyrone wants. She criticizes Edmund and Jamie for dishonoring themselves with loose adult females, so that at present no respectable misss will be seen with them. Mary announces her b elief that Jamie and Edmund are ever cruelly leery, and she thinks that they spy on her. She asks Edmund to halt surmising me, although she acknowledges that Edmund can non swear her because she has broken many promises in the yesteryear. She thinks that the yesteryear is difficult to bury because it is full of broken promises. The act ends with Edmund s issue. Mary sits entirely, jerking nervously. Act II, Scene i The drape rises once more on the life room, where Edmund sits reading. It is 12:45 autopsy on the same August twenty-four hours. Cathleen, the amah, enters with whisky and H2O for pre-lunch imbibing. Edmund asks Cathleen to name Tyrone and Jamie for tiffin. Cathleen is gabby and flirty, and Tells Edmund that he is fine-looking. Jamie shortly enters and pours himself a drink, adding H2O to the bottle afterwards so that Tyrone will non cognize they had a drink before he came in. Tyrone is still outside, speaking to one of the neighbours and seting on an act with the purpose of demoing off. Jamie tells Edmund that Edmund may hold a illness more terrible than a simple instance of malaria. He so chastises Edmund for go forthing Mary entirely all forenoon. He tells him that Mary s promises mean nil any longer. Jamie reveals that he and Tyrone knew of Mary s morphine dependence every bit much as 10 old ages before they told Edmund. Edmund begins a coughing tantrum as Mary enters, and she tells him non to cough. When Jamie makes a supercilious remark about his male parent, Mary tells him to esteem Tyrone more. She tells him to halt ever seeking out the failings in others. She expresses her fatalistic position of life, that most events are someway predetermined, that worlds have small control over their ain lives. She so complains that Tyrone neer hires any good retainers ; she is displeased with Cathleen, and she blames her sadness on Tyrone s refusal to engage a top-rate amah. At this point, Cathleen enters and tells them that Tyrone is still outside speaking. Edmund exits to bring him, and while he is gone, Jamie stares at Mary with a concerned expression. Mary asks why he is looking at her, and he tells her that she knows why. Although he will non state it straight, Jamie knows that Mary is back on morphia ; he can state by her glassy eyes. Edmund reenters and expletives Jamie when Mary, playing ignorant, tel ls him that Jamie has been insinuating awful things about her. Mary prevents an statement by stating Edmund to fault no 1. She once more expresses her fatalist position: [ Jamie ] ca nt assist what the yesteryear has made him. Any more than your male parent can. Or you. Or I. Jamie shrugs off all accusals, and Edmund looks suspiciously at Mary. Tyrone enters, and he argues briefly with his two boies about the whisky. They all have a big drink. Suddenly, Mary has an outburst about Tyrone s failure to understand what a place is. Mary has a distinguishable vision of a place, one that Tyrone has neer been able to supply for her. She tells him that he should hold remained a unmarried man, but so she drops the topic so that they can get down tiffin. However, she foremost criticizes Tyrone for allowing Edmund drink, stating that it will kill him. Suddenly experiencing guilty, she retracts her remarks. Jamie and Edmund issue to the dining room. Tyrone sits gazing at Mary, so says that he has been a God-damned sap to believe in you. She becomes defensive and begins to deny Tyrone s mute accusals, but he now knows that she is back on morphia. She complains once more of his imbibing before the scene ends. Act II, Scene ii The scene begins half an hr after the old scene. The household is returning from tiffin in the dining room. Tyrone appears angry and distant, while Edmund appears brokenhearted. Mary and Tyrone argue briefly about the nature of the place, although Mary seems slightly distant while she speaks because she is on morphia. The phone rings, and Tyrone answers it. He talks briefly with the company and agrees on a meeting at four oclock. He returns and tells the household that the company was Doc Hardy, who wanted to see Edmund that afternoon. Edmund comments that it does nt sound like good newss. Mary instantly discredits everything Doc Hardy has to state because she thinks he is a inexpensive quack whom Tyrone hired merely because he is cheap. After a brief statement, she exits upstairs. After she is gone, Jamie comments that she has gone to acquire more morphia. Edmund and Tyrone explode at him, stating him non to believe such bad ideas about people. Jamie counters that Edmund and Tyrone need to confront the truth ; they are pull the leg ofing themselves. Edmund tells Jamie that he is excessively pessimistic. Tyrone argues that both male childs have forgotten Catholicism, the lone belief that is non deceitful. Jamie and Edmund both grow mad and get down to reason with Tyrone. Tyrone admits that he does non pattern Catholicism purely, but he claims that he prays each forenoon and each eventide. Edmund is a truster in Nietzsche, who wrote that God is dead in Thus Spoke Zarathustra. He ends the statement, nevertheless, by deciding to talk with Mary about the drugs, and he exits upstairs. After Edmund leaves, Tyrone tells Jamie that Doc Hardy say that Edmund has ingestion, no possible uncertainty. However, if Edmund goes to a sanatarium instantly, he will be cured in six to 12 months. Jamie demands that Tyrone send Edmund someplace good, non someplace inexpensive. Jamie says that Tyrone thinks ingestion is needfully fatal, and therefore it is non deserving passing money on seeking to bring around Edmund since he is guaranteed to decease anyhow. Jamie right argues that ingestion can be cured if treated decently. He decides to travel with Tyrone and Edmund to the physician that afternoon so exits. Mary reenters as Jamie leaves, and she tells Tyrone that Jamie would be a good boy if he had been raised in a existent place as Mary envisions it. She tells Tyrone non to give Jamie any money because he will utilize it merely to but spirits. Tyrone bitterly implies that Mary and her drug usage is adequate to do any adult male want to imbibe. Mary dodges his accusal with denials, but she asks Tyrone non to go forth her alone that afternoon because she gets lonely. Tyrone responds that Mary is the 1 who foliages, mentioning to her mental distance when she takes drugs. Tyrone suggests that Mary take a drive in the new auto he bought her, which to Tyrone s bitterness does non frequently acquire used ( he sees it as another waste of money ) . Mary tells him that he should non hold bought her a second-hand auto. In any instance, Mary argues that she has no 1 to see in the auto , since she has non had any friends since she got married. She alludes briefly to a dirt affecting Tyrone and a kept woman at the beginning of their matrimony, and this event caused many of her friends to abandon her. Tyrone Tells Mary non to delve up the yesteryear. Mary changes the topic and tells Tyrone that she needs to travel to the apothecarys shop. Diging into the past, Mary tells Tyrone the narrative of acquiring addicted to morphine when Edmund was born. She implicitly blames Tyrone for her dependence because he would merely pay for a inexpensive physician who knew of no better manner to bring around her childbearing hurting. Tyrone interrupts and tells her to bury the yesteryear, but Mary answers, Why? How can I? The yesteryear is the present, is nt it? It s the hereafter excessively. We all try to lie out of that but life wo nt allow us. Mary blames herself for interrupting her vow neer to hold another babe after Eugene, her 2nd babe who died at two old ages old from rubeolas he caught from Jamie after Jamie went into the babe s room. Tyrone tells Mary to allow the dead babe remainder in peace, but Mary merely blames herself more for non remaining with Eugene ( her female parent was babysitting when Jamie gave Eugene rubeolas ) , and alternatively traveling on the route to maintain Tyrone company as he traveled the state with his dramas. Tyrone had later insisted that Mary have another babe to replace Eugene, and so Edmund was born. But Mary claimed that from the first twenty-four hours she could state that Edmund was weak and delicate, as though God intended to penalize her for what happened to Eugene. Edmund reenters after Mary s address, and he asks Tyrone for money, which Tyrone grudgingly produces. Edmund is truly grateful, but so he gets the thought that Tyrone may repent giving him money because Tyrone thinks that Edmund will decease and the money will be wasted. Tyrone is greatly hurt by this accusal, and Edmund all of a sudden feels really guilty for what he said. He and his male parent do damagess briefly before Mary furiously tells Edmund non to be so morbid and pessimistic. She begins to shout, and Tyrone exits to acquire ready to travel to the physician with Edmund. Mary once more criticizes Doc Hardy and Tells Edmund non to see him. Edmund replies that Mary needs to discontinue the morphia, which puts Mary on the defensive, denying that she still uses and so doing alibis for herself. She admits that she lies to herself all the clip, and she says that she can no longer name my psyche my ain. She hopes for salvation one twenty-four hours through the Virgin. Jamie and T yrone call Edmund, and he exits. Mary is left entirely, sword lilies that they are gone but experiencing so lonely. Act III The scene opens every bit usual on the life room at 6:30 autopsy, merely before dinner clip. Mary and Cathleen are entirely in the room ; Cathleen, at Mary s invitation, has been imbibing. Although they discuss the fog, it is clear that Cathleen is at that place merely to give Mary a opportunity to speak to person. They discuss briefly Tyrone s compulsion with money, and so Mary refuses to acknowledge to Edmund s ingestion. Mary delves into her past memories of her life and household. As a pious Catholic schoolgirl, she says that she neer liked the theatre ; she did non experience at place with the theatre crowd. Mary so brings up the topic of morphia, which we learn Cathleen gets for her from the local apothecarys shop. Mary is going obsessed with her custodies, which used to be long and beautiful but have since deteriorated. She mentions that she used to hold two dreams: to go a nun and to go a celebrated professional piano player. These dreams evaporated, nevertheless, when she met Tyrone and fell in love. She met Tyrone after seeing him in a drama. He was friends with her male parent, who introduced the two. And she maintains that Tyrone is a good adult male ; in 36 old ages of matrimony, he has had non one adulterous dirt. Cathleen so exits to see about dinner, and Mary easy becomes acrimonious as she recalls more memories. She thinks of her felicity before run intoing Tyrone. She thinks that she can non pray any longer because the Virgin will non listen to a pot monster. She decides to travel upstairs to acquire more drugs, but before she can make so, Edmund and Tyrone return. They instantly recognize upon seeing her that she has taken a big dosage of morphia. Mary tells them that she is surprised they returned, since it is more cheerful uptown. The work forces are clearly intoxicated, and in fact Jamie is still uptown seeing prostitutes and imbibing. Mary says that Jamie is a hopeless failure and warns that he will drag down Edmund with him out of green-eyed monster. Mary negotiations more about the bad memories from the yesteryear, and Tyrone plaints that he even bothered to come place to his pot nut of a married woman. Tyrone decides to pay no attending to her. Mary meanwhile waxes about Jamie, who she thinks was really smart until he started imbibing. Mary blames Jamie s imbibing on Tyrone, naming the Irish stupid rummies, a remark which Tyrone ignores. Mary s tone all of a sudden changes as she reminisces about run intoing Tyrone. Tyrone so begins to shout as he thinks back on the memories, and he tells his married woman that he loves her. Mary responds, I love you dear, in malice of everything. But she regrets get marrieding him because he drinks so much. Mary says she will non bury, but she will seek to forgive. She mentions that she was spoiled awfully by her male parent, and that botching made her a bad married woman. Tyrone takes a drink, but seeing the bottle has been watered down by his boies seeking to gull him into believing that they have nt been imbibing, he goes to acquire a new one. Mary once more calls him ungenerous, but she excuses him to Edmund, stating of how he was abandoned by his male parent and forced to work at age 10. Edmund so tells Mary that he has TB, and Mary instantly begins discrediting Doc Hardy. She will non believe it, and she does non desire Edmund to travel to a sanatarium. She thinks that Edmund is merely blowing things out of the H2O in an attempt to acquire more attending. Edmund reminds Mary that her ain male parent died of TB, so remarks that it is hard holding a pot monster for a female parent. He exits, laping Mary entirely. She says aloud that she needs more morphia, and she admits that she in secret hopes to o.d. and decease, but she can non deliberately do so because the Virgin could neer forgive self-destruction. Tyrone reenters with more whisky, observing that Jamie could non pick the lock to his spirits cabinet. Mary all of a sudden bursts out that Edmund will decease, but Tyrone assures her that he will be cured in six months. Mary thinks that Edmund hated her because she is a pot monster. Tyrone comforts her, and Mary one time once more blames herself for giving birth. Cathleen announces dinner. Mary says she is non hungry and goes to bed. Tyrone knows that she is truly traveling for more drugs. Act IV, Part One The clip is midnight, and as the act begins a fogsignal is heard in the distance. Tyrone sits entirely in the life room, imbibing and playing solitaire. He is intoxicated, and shortly Edmund enters, besides rummy. They argue about maintaining the visible radiations on and the cost of the electricity. Tyrone acts stubborn, and Edmund accuses him of believing whatever he wants, including that Shakespeare and Wellington were Irish Catholics. Tyrone grows angry and threatens to crush Edmund, so retracts. He gives up and bends on all the visible radiations. They note that Jamie is still out at the brothel. Edmund has merely returned from a long walk in the cold dark air even though making so was a bad thought for his wellness. He states, To hell with sense! We re all loony. Edmund tells Tyrone that he loves being in the fog because it lets him populate in another universe. He pessimistically parodies Shakespeare, stating, We are such material as manure is made of, so Lashkar-e-Taiba s imbibe up and bury it. That s more my thought. He quotes so from the Gallic writer Baudelaire, stating be ever drunken. He so quotes from Baudelaire about the orgy in the metropolis in mention to Jamie. Tyrone criticizes all of Edmund s literary gustatory sensations ; he thinks Edmund should go forth literature for God. Tyrone thinks that merely Shakespeare avoids being an immorality, morbid pervert. They hear Mary upstairs traveling about, and they discuss her male parent, who died of TB. Edmund notes that they merely seem to discourse unhappy subjects together. They begin to play cards, and Tyrone tells Jamie that even though Mary dreamed of being a nun and a piano player, she did non hold the self-control for the former or the accomplishment for the latter ; Mary deludes herself. They hear her come downstairs but pretend non to detect. Edmund so blames Tyrone for Mary s morphia dependence because Tyrone hired a inexpensive quack. Edmund so says he hates Tyrone and blames him for Mary s continued dependence because Tyrone neer gave her a place. Tyrone defends himself, but so Edmund says that he thinks that Tyrone believes he will decease from ingestion. Edmund tells Tyrone that he, Tyrone, spends money merely on land, non on his boies. Edmund states that he will decease before he will travel to a inexpensive sanatarium. Tyrone coppices off his remarks, stating that Edmund is intoxicated. But Tyrone promises to direct Edmund anyplace he wants to do him better, within ground. Tyrone tells Edmund that he is prudent with money because he has ever had to work for everything he has. Edmund and Jamie, by contrast, have been able to take everything in life for granted. Tyrone thinks that neither of his boies knows the value of money. Edmund, diging into his deeper emotions, reminds Tyrone that he, Edmund, one time tried to perpetrate self-destruction. Tyrone says that Edmund was simply intoxicated at the clip, but Edmund insists he was cognizant of his actions. Tyrone so begins to shout lightly, stating of his destitute childhood and his awful male parent. Tyrone and Edmund, doing damagess, agree together on a sanatarium for Edmund, a topographic point that is more expensive but well better. Tyrone so tells Edmund of his great theatrical error that prevented him from going widely celebrated: he sold out t o one peculiar function, and was everlastingly more typecast, doing it hard for him to spread out his skylines and happen new work. Tyrone says that he merely of all time truly wanted to be an creative person, but his hopes were dashed when he sold out to brief commercial success. Edmund begins express joying at life. It s so blasted loony, thought of his male parent as an creative person. Edmund so tells some of his memories, all of which are related to the sea. He reflects on minutes when he felt dissolved into or lost in the ocean. He thinks that there is truth and significance in being lost at sea, and he thinks he should hold been born a sea gull or a fish. Act IV, Part Two Hearing Jamie nearing the house, Tyrone steps into the following room. Jamie enters, rummy and slurring his address. He drinks more, but he will non allow Edmund imbibe at first, for wellness grounds. Jamie complains about Tyrone briefly, so learns of his understanding with Edmund. Jamie says that he spent the eventide at the brothel, where he paid for a fat prostitute whom no 1 else was willing to take. Edmund attacks Jamie with a clout when Jamie begins praising himself and call on the carpeting others. Jamie thanks him all of a sudden for unbending him out ; he has been messed up by jobs related to Mary s dependence. He and Edmund both begin to shout as they think about their female parent. Jamie is besides worried about Edmund, who may decease from ingestion. Jamie says that he loves Edmund, and that in a sense he made him what he is at present. But Jamie besides admits that he has been a bad influence, and he says that he did it on intent. Jamie admits that he has ever been covetous of Edmund, and he wanted Edmund to besides neglect. He set a bad illustration deliberately and tried to convey Edmund down. He so warns Edmund, stating, I ll make my damnedest to do you neglect, but so he admits, You re all I ve got left. Jamie so passes out. Tyrone so reenters, holding heard all that Jamie said. Tyrone says that he has been publishing the exact same warning to Edmund for many old ages. Tyrone calls Jamie a waste. Jamie wakes up all of a sudden and argues with Tyrone. Jamie and Tyrone both pass out briefly until they are awoken by the sound of Mary playing the piano in the following room. The sound stops, and Mary appears. She is really pale and really clearly on a significant dosage of morphia. Jamie begins to shout, and Tyrone angrily cries that he will throw Jamie out of his house. Mary is hallucinating, believing that she is back in her childhood. She thinks that she is in a convent. In her custodies, she is keeping her nuptials gown, which she fished out of the Attic earlier. She does non hear anyone, and she moves like a somnambulist. Edmund all of a sudden tells Mary that he has ingestion, but she tells him non to touch her because she wants to be a nun. The three work forces all pour themselves more alcohol, but before they can imbibe, Mary begins to talk. She tells them of her talk with Mother Elizabeth, who told her that she should see life out of the convent before taking to go a nun. Mary says that she followed that advice, went place to her parents, met and fell in love with James Tyrone, and was so happy for a clip. The male childs sit motionless and Tyrone stirs in his chair as the drama ends.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Sinbad the Sailor essays

Sinbad the Sailor essays The stories on Sinbad the Voyager from the Arabian nights, are fantastic tales of voyages of a merchant named Sinbad. The stories are told as Sinbad tells them to a humble porter named Hindbad, who after complaining about his lack of financial fortune outside of Sindbads luxurious home is invited into Sindbad's home. Sinbad offers Hindbad dinner and a hundred sequins, a substantial amount, to listen to his stories. Throughout the stories of Sinbad the Voyager in the Arabian Nights the main character Sinbad lacks the classic properties of a hero and is only respected because of his exotic stories and his wealth. Sinbad throughout his stories fails to prove himself worthy and respected for any virtues that make up a hero. He lacks such fundamental virtues like courage strength and mental superiority. His only distinguishing traits are that of luck and perseverance and his love of travel. However although Sinbad may be an appealing and charismatic character its the stories that are appealing and not his behavior. The fantastic creatures and lands that Sinbad speaks of are the main attraction of the stories and Sinbad is merely a merchant traveler who lives to tell their tale. Although he is the one who manages to escape with his life when confronted with the perils however its luck that liberates him from the hazardous situations. Sinbad fails to show any courage in any of his seven voyages. His apparent acts of bravery are brought forth by his will to live, and are not influenced by any noble cause. He musters up enough courage to burn out the single eye of the giant on an island, but only in the desperation of having watched his companions eaten by the giant. Even in that situation they poke out the eye of the monster without any courageous encounter, in fact they poke out the eye of the monster when he is asleep and then they run for their lives. In Sindbads encounter with the ...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Summative assessment - Part 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Summative assessment - Part 2 - Essay Example Thus, it is socially responsible and supports the entire market in order to ensure that the best products are available in the market. The company uses the most recent technology to run all its operations; every section or rather department of Anisa International has gone digital, starting from the marketing, management, communication and distribution of its products (Yahoo Finance, 2004). To start with, Anisa International, Inc. has gone digital in marketing of its products. There are a number of social websites that have allowed platforms for advertisements and other marketing procedures for various companies. Sites such as Facebook, twitter, YouTube and Google have made it easy and cheaper for business organizations across the globe to effective market their products. For instance, Anisa International has a Facebook page whereby all the news about the new products, changes in the existing products, prices of particular products and general company operations are posted. This style of marketing is somehow effective as it is easily accessible by any individual irrespective of age, gender, race or social class. With the current level of technology, there are hundreds of millions internet traffic daily; people access or rather visit various sites with diverse aims. Thus, for fashion lovers, Facebook pages for famous companies and other fashion websites are their destin ations. Information in Anisa’s Facebook pages is accessed or rather read by thousands of individuals daily. Therefore, the company easily spreads the news about its products via this medium. In addition, management of firm’s operations in todays’ world has gone digital. Many organizations have transformed from paper work or rather manual way of transacting and recording information to the digital way of handling all the operations of the companies. For instance, Anisa International, Inc. has all the information about the company’s operations stored and handled

Friday, February 7, 2020

SAP implementation Project Managment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

SAP implementation Project Managment - Essay Example illustrates the application of various project management principles and practices that are desirable for project success and are largely covered in the PMBOK. This project is quite simple, the IBM PM Team works under a well predefined scope covering major areas such as putting out fires, preventing scope-creep, and managing risks. The most important point coming out here is that the team understands what they need to do and develop the scope well in advance, it is also quite impressive that they determine the risks involved during scope development. This kind of practice is well covered in the PMBOK under the chapter called scope management where project scope definition is identified as a very important area where boundaries of the project are determined. The fact that Prakash and his team start by going to the client site, gathering the requirements, and calculating the plan schedule indicates that they are very serious with project integration management. This is well defined in the PMBOK as a chapter dealing where integration management is presented as an aid towards project planning, execution and control. The preliminary actions of the team culminating in site visit for planning indicates a deep understanding of the importance of this aspect of project management. In my opinion, this action can be enhanced by coming up with a document that clearly maps out all the actions at the site visit level and indicate the project roadmap from this time. The project also includes another very important aspect dealing with stakeholders. After award of the contract it is clear that the Project Manager start implementation by defining objectives, purpose and justifying important actions. The scope is verified to fit within a measurement developed by the team that mainly involves determination of the commitment of stakeholders, performance is good, the schedules are predictable and that the risks identified are well mitigated. It is clear that the team is putting into